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摘要: 尽管伊曼纽尔·马克龙与罢工者的冲突可能是法国大街小巷最热议的话题,但法国当局正被另外一件事所困扰。从7月1日起,单车道乡村路段的限速将从90公里降至80公里。...

WHILE Emmanuel Macron’s conflict with the strikers may be the hottest topic of conversation in French cities, la France profonde is exercised about another aspect of presidential authority. From July 1st, the limit on single-carriageway rural roads w李玉刚的老婆李雨儿ill be reduced from 90kph (55mph) to 80kph. The government maintains that this will save 300-400 lives a year. But opinion amid the pastis and the boules is solidly against the redu鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假ction..


This decision 王惠芬is no Jupiterian decree, imposed arbitrarily by the powers in Paris on resentful rurals. Humanity’s love of sp青橙奖eed needs to be tempered by considerations of safety and pollution. So the government set the costs of reducing the speed limit on various sorts of roads against the benefits, and found that the sums came out in favour of a lower limit. Such cost-benefit analyses may seem cold-hearted. They involve putting a price on life and balancing it against time gained. But France is right to make a decision involving such trade-offs. Would that other countries were so rational.


Getting their 鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假kicks


Because road deaths have neither much annual variation nor a politically interesting cause, they get little attention. Ye一世姐妹情t they are still the world’s eighth-biggest cause of death. Even in rich countries, where they are in long-term decline, they remain significant.金艺贞 That is pa好妹妹人体艺术rticularly 沸燃之箱true in America, where 40,327 people died on the roads in 2016, around the same number as were killed by br鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假east cancer. Road deaths have fallen more slowly in America than in the rest of the rich world—by less in percentage terms between 1972 and 2011 than in any of the other 25 countries studied in a paper in the American Journal of Public Health. Had they fallen as fast as in the top seven performers, America would have avoided 20,000 deaths a year.


That is partly because speed limits have been going up in America, offsetting the gains from safer cars. In 1974, in response to the oil crisis,鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假 the federal government took control of speed莫翠平 limits and set them at 55mph; the law was relaxed in 1987 and repealed in 1995, with power to set spe鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假ed limits being returned to the states. Since then they have, by and large, been rising. Six states now have maximums of 80mph; in Texas, the maximum is 85mph.

一方面的原因是美国的最高限速的进步,抵销了车辆安全性进步的作用。1974年,为应对d4救援队石油危机,美国联邦政府操控了限速,设为每小时55英里; 该法令于1987年放宽,1995年废止,将限速权返还给各州。整体来看,从那时起,限速上限一直在上升。现在六个州的最高时速为80英里/小时;克萨斯州的最高时速为85英里/小时。

No doubt America’s size, self-image and love of freedom lie behind those increases, but they have also been encouraged by the way speed limits are set. The main factor which state authorities look at is how fast people drive. Speed limits are set at the 85th percentile of prevailing speeds. That has the advantage of keeping the law in line with the behaviour of the majority o谌天舒f drivers. But, as the National Transportation Safety Board pointed out in a report last year, it can lead to an “洪翊飞undesirable cycle” whereby the speed limit goes up, so people drive 鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假faster, so the speed limit is raised. A cost-benefit analysis of increases from 1987 to 1996 carried out by an academic suggests that they should not have been allowed. It seems likely that current limits on many roads are too high.


Of course, down is not always the right directi古间圆儿on for speed l企迈云商imits. In the end, the only really safe speed for a car is zero, but people are prepared to take risks to get about, and speed limits need to t妈妈说下面痒了想玩ake that into account. “Vision Zero”, an initiative which started in Sweden and is spreading, envisages the abolition of road deaths, which is implausible: even self-driving cars, which are likely to be far safer than fallible (especial潘桂亚ly when drunk) humans, are sometimes going to kill people.

当然,降速并不总是正确的限速方法。最终极的,仅有真实安全的鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假车速是零,但人们都有着冒险的预备,限速也需求考虑到这一点。“Vision Zero”建议始于瑞典并四处推行,想象让交通逝世事故完全消失,这不尽合理:即使是比人类驾驭(特别是醉酒时)更安全的自动驾驭轿车,有时也呈现致人伤亡的状况。








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作者:admin本文地址:http://www.hjsee.cn/articles/866.html发布于 1个月前 ( 04-16 00:28 )