鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,过年放假

admin 1个月前 ( 04-16 00:28 ) 0条评论
摘要: 尽管伊曼纽尔·马克龙与罢工者的冲突可能是法国大街小巷最热议的话题,但法国当局正被另外一件事所困扰。从7月1日起,单车道乡村路段的限速将从90公里降至80公里。...

WHILE Emmanuel Macron’s conflict with the strikers may be the hottest topic of conversation in French cities, la France profonde is exercised about another aspect of presidential authority. From July 1st, the limit on single-carriageway rural roads w李玉刚的老婆李雨儿ill be reduced from 90kph (55mph) to 80kph. The government maintains that this will save 300-400 lives a year. But opinion amid the pastis and the boules is solidly against the redu鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假ction..

虽然伊曼纽尔马克龙与停工者的抵触或许是法国街头巷尾最热议的论题,但法国当局正被别的一件事所困扰。从7月1日起,单车道村庄路段的限速将从90公里降至80公里。法国政府以为每年能抢救300-400人的生命,可是酒鬼和球迷们坚决对立减速。

This decision 王惠芬is no Jupiterian decree, imposed arbitrarily by the powers in Paris on resentful rurals. Humanity’s love of sp青橙奖eed needs to be tempered by considerations of safety and pollution. So the government set the costs of reducing the speed limit on various sorts of roads against the benefits, and found that the sums came out in favour of a lower limit. Such cost-benefit analyses may seem cold-hearted. They involve putting a price on life and balancing it against time gained. But France is right to make a decision involving such trade-offs. Would that other countries were so rational.

这个决议不是不行违背的法则,是法国当局强行施加给持对立定见的村庄人。人类对速度的爱遭到考虑安全和污染的捆绑。因而,法国政府在各种路途限速来核算开销和收益本钱,最终发现核算结果倾向于限速。这种本钱效益剖析或许看起来冷若冰霜。这个本钱收益剖析还包含给生命定价而且衡量其间的收益。不过,法国做出这种权衡的决议是正确的。其它国家是否也会如此理性呢?

Getting their 鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假kicks

尽情玩乐

Because road deaths have neither much annual variation nor a politically interesting cause, they get little attention. Ye一世姐妹情t they are still the world’s eighth-biggest cause of death. Even in rich countries, where they are in long-term decline, they remain significant.金艺贞 That is pa好妹妹人体艺术rticularly 沸燃之箱true in America, where 40,327 people died on the roads in 2016, around the same number as were killed by br鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假east cancer. Road deaths have fallen more slowly in America than in the rest of the rich world—by less in percentage terms between 1972 and 2011 than in any of the other 25 countries studied in a paper in the American Journal of Public Health. Had they fallen as fast as in the top seven performers, America would have avoided 20,000 deaths a year.

因为交通逝世每年没有太大改变,也不是有政治趣事,简直不受重视。可是,它却仍排在全球致死原因的第八。即便是在发达国家,交通逝世长时间处于下降状况,依然不行小觑。在美国特别如此:2016年有40,327人死于事故,与死于乳腺癌的人数大致相同。美国的交通逝世人数下降得比其樱姬百度云他发达国家更慢——美国的《公共卫生》杂志上一篇论文研讨指出,按百分比,在1972年至2011年间,美国的交通逝世人数减少得比别的25个国家都要慢。要是交通事故下降速胸吧度和前七名国家相同快的话,美国每年将防止20,000人逝世。

That is partly because speed limits have been going up in America, offsetting the gains from safer cars. In 1974, in response to the oil crisis,鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假 the federal government took control of speed莫翠平 limits and set them at 55mph; the law was relaxed in 1987 and repealed in 1995, with power to set spe鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假ed limits being returned to the states. Since then they have, by and large, been rising. Six states now have maximums of 80mph; in Texas, the maximum is 85mph.

一方面的原因是美国的最高限速的进步,抵销了车辆安全性进步的作用。1974年,为应对d4救援队石油危机,美国联邦政府操控了限速,设为每小时55英里; 该法令于1987年放宽,1995年废止,将限速权返还给各州。整体来看,从那时起,限速上限一直在上升。现在六个州的最高时速为80英里/小时;克萨斯州的最高时速为85英里/小时。

No doubt America’s size, self-image and love of freedom lie behind those increases, but they have also been encouraged by the way speed limits are set. The main factor which state authorities look at is how fast people drive. Speed limits are set at the 85th percentile of prevailing speeds. That has the advantage of keeping the law in line with the behaviour of the majority o谌天舒f drivers. But, as the National Transportation Safety Board pointed out in a report last year, it can lead to an “洪翊飞undesirable cycle” whereby the speed limit goes up, so people drive 鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假faster, so the speed limit is raised. A cost-benefit analysis of increases from 1987 to 1996 carried out by an academic suggests that they should not have been allowed. It seems likely that current limits on many roads are too high.

毫无疑问,最高时速的增加与美国的疆土规划、自我形象和对自在的酷爱有学校暴君关,但也受限速方法的鼓舞。因为各州当局重视的主要因素是人们开车速度。限速设定在遍及车速的85%。这有利于坚持法令与大多数司机的车速共同。可是,正如国家运送安全委员会去年在一份陈述中指出的那明星相片样,它或许导致一个“恶性循环”,因为限速进步,人们开车速度加速,限速再进步…一位学者从1987年到1996年增速的本钱效益剖析表明,不应该答应这样循环下去。许多路途上的最高限速好像过高了。

Of course, down is not always the right directi古间圆儿on for speed l企迈云商imits. In the end, the only really safe speed for a car is zero, but people are prepared to take risks to get about, and speed limits need to t妈妈说下面痒了想玩ake that into account. “Vision Zero”, an initiative which started in Sweden and is spreading, envisages the abolition of road deaths, which is implausible: even self-driving cars, which are likely to be far safer than fallible (especial潘桂亚ly when drunk) humans, are sometimes going to kill people.

当然,降速并不总是正确的限速方法。最终极的,仅有真实安全的鲁班锁,双语阅览|法国下调车速最高值,春节放假车速是零,但人们都有着冒险的预备,限速也需求考虑到这一点。“Vision Zero”建议始于瑞典并四处推行,想象让交通逝世事故完全消失,这不尽合理:即使是比人类驾驭(特别是醉酒时)更安全的自动驾驭轿车,有时也呈现致人伤亡的状况。

编译:彭晏

修改:翻吧君

来历:经济学人(2018.06.01)

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